How to make pseudoephedrine from yeast

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Breaking Good: how to synthesize Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) From N-Methylamphetamine (crystal meth)

People extract ephedrine from Sida Cordifolia in a variety of ways. Some people boil it, while others dry the plant out.It's not made from the ephedra plant. Pseudoephedrine doesn't have any ephedra in it. It is made synthetically, now; extracting the ephedrine from ephedra then converting it to pseudoephedrine is too costly to be worth the effort. Ephedrine is the active ingredient in Ephedra synonym: ma huang, among others ; it is also produced synthetically, again because it's a heap cheaper to make it from off-the-shelf chemicals than to extract it and purify it to the required standards.

Because of the people using pseudoephedrine to make crystal meth, pseudoephedrine has gotten rather hard to buy; before long, the crystal meth clowns will be figuring a way to make the crystal meth from ephedrine, and that's going to get hard to buy, too.

How is pseudoephedrine made from the ephedra plant?

Phenylephrine is starting to displace both of them, not because it is a superior drug it isn't but because the crystal meth makers will have a much harder time using it as a reagent in their little illegal labs Although pseudoephedrine occurs naturally as an alkaloid in certain plant species for example, as a constituent of extracts from the ephedra species, also known as Ma Huang, in which it occurs together with other isomers of ephedrinethe majority of pseudoephedrine produced for commercial use is derived from yeast fermentation of dextrose in the presence of benzaldehyde.

In this process, specialized strains of yeast typically a variety of Candida utilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae are added to large vats containing water, dextrose and the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase such as found in beets and other plants, inter alia.

After the yeast has begun fermenting the dextrose, the benzaldehyde is added to the vats, and in this environment the yeast convert the precursor ingredients to l-phenylacetylcarbinol L-PAC. L-PAC is then chemically converted to pseudoephedrine via reductive amination. Oliver, The bulk of pseudoephedrine is produced by commercial pharmaceutical manufacturers in India and China, where economic and industrial conditions favor the mass production of pseudoephedrine for export.

Suo, After boiling the plant in a super-saturated glycerol solution for minutes at sea-level, it floats to the top as a swirling, yellowish fluid. It can then be removed, skimming the surface with a piece of college-ruled notebook paper and placed in direct sunlight for no less than 22 hours, until crystallized There, you have it.

Po Boy Lv 4. Update: And yes it does come from the ephedra plant. Answer Save. Bastet's kitten Lv 6. Pseudoephedrine is commonly known as Sudafed. Jack 6 years ago Report. Pseudoephedrine is a molecular analogue of ephedrine. Hope this clears up the confusion, here Oliver, The bulk of pseudoephedrine is produced by commercial pharmaceutical manufacturers in India and China, where economic and industrial conditions favor the mass production of pseudoephedrine for export.

How do you think about the answers? You can sign in to vote the answer. Where Does Ephedrine Come From. Please see the webpage for more details on Pseudoehedrine. Still have questions? Get your answers by asking now.Hai and I. A response by annoyed Sudafed users to the onerous demands by pharmacies for ID and tracking, due to the fact that this helpful and common over-the-counter drug can be used to manufacture crystal meth.

A novel and straightforward synthesis of pseudoephidrine from readily available N-methylamphetamine is presented. This practical synthesis is expected to be a disruptive technology replacing the need to find an open pharmacy. In recent years it has become increasingly difficult to obtain psuedoephedine in many states because of its use as a precursor for the illegal drug N-methylamphetamine also known under various names including crystal meth, meth, ice, etc.

How Meth Works

While in the past many stores were able to sell pseudoephedrine, new laws in the United States have restricted sales to pharmacies, with the medicine kept behind the counter. The pharmacies require signatures and examination of government issued ID in order to purchase pseudoephedrine.

how to make pseudoephedrine from yeast

Because the hours of availability of such pharmacies are often limited, it would be of great interest to have a simple synthesis of pseudoephedrine from reagents which can be more readily procured. A quick search of several neighborhoods of the United States revealed that while pseudoephedrine is difficult to obtain, N-methylamphetamine can be procured at almost any time on short notice and in quantities sufficient for synthesis of useful amounts of the desired material.

Moreover, according to government maintained statistics, Nmethylmphetamine is becoming an increasingly attractive starting material for pseudoephedrine, as the availability of Nmethylmphetamine has remained high while prices have dropped and purity has increased [2]. We present here a convenient series of transformations using reagents which can be found in most well stocked organic chemistry laboratories to produce psuedoephedrine from N-methylamphetamine.

Images, via Shutterstock: At top, a type of glass pipe commonly used to smoke crystal meth. Inset, N-Methylamphetamine. But now, some intelligence experts admit they are seriously looking into the possibility that the COVID pandemic might have been touched off [因.

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Pseudoephedrine is a stimulantbut it is well known for shrinking swollen nasal mucous membranes, so it is often used as a decongestant. It reduces tissue hyperemiaedemaand nasal congestion commonly associated with colds or allergies.

Other beneficial effects may include increasing the drainage of sinus secretions, and opening of obstructed Eustachian tubes. The same vasoconstriction action can also result in hypertensionwhich is a noted side effect of pseudoephedrine.

Pseudoephedrine can be used either as oral or as topical decongestant. However, due to its stimulating qualities, the oral preparation is more likely to cause adverse effects, including urinary retention. Pseudoephedrine is indicated for the treatment of nasal congestion, sinus congestion and Eustachian tube congestion.

Pseudoephedrine is also used as a first-line prophylactic for recurrent priapism. Erection is largely a parasympathetic response, so the sympathetic action of pseudoephedrine may serve to relieve this condition. Treatment for urinary incontinence is an off-label use "unlabeled use" for these medications. Common adverse drug reactions ADRs associated with pseudoephedrine therapy include central nervous system stimulation, insomnia, nervousness, excitability, dizziness and anxiety.

Infrequent ADRs include tachycardia or palpitations. Rarely, pseudoephedrine therapy may be associated with mydriasis dilated pupilshallucinationsarrhythmiashypertensionseizures and ischemic colitis ; [10] as well as severe skin reactions known as recurrent pseudo-scarlatina, systemic contact dermatitis, and nonpigmenting fixed drug eruption.

Pseudoephedrine is contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellituscardiovascular diseasesevere or uncontrolled hypertensionsevere coronary artery diseaseprostatic hypertrophyhyperthyroidismclosed angle glaucomaor by pregnant women.

Concomitant or recent previous fourteen days monoamine oxidase inhibitor use can lead to hypertensive reactions, including hypertensive crises. The antihypertensive effects of methyldopamecamylaminereserpine and veratrum alkaloids may be reduced by sympathomimetics. Beta-adrenergic antagonists may also interact with sympathomimetics. Increase of ectopic pacemaker activity can occur when pseudoephedrine is used concomitantly with digitalis. Antacids increase the rate of pseudoephedrine absorption, while kaolin decreases it.

Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine. Its principal mechanism of action relies on its direct action on the adrenergic receptor system. When these receptors are activated, the muscles contract, causing the blood vessels to constrict vasoconstriction. The constricted blood vessels now allow less fluid to leave the blood vessels and enter the nose, throat and sinus linings, which results in decreased inflammation of nasal membranes, as well as decreased mucus production.

Thus, by constriction of blood vessels, mainly those located in the nasal passages, pseudoephedrine causes a decrease in the symptoms of nasal congestion.Kostraby, Margaret Mary The yeast mediated synthesis of the l-ephedrine precursor, l-phenylacetylcarbinol, in an organic solvent.

PhD thesis, Victoria University of Technology. The first step utilises fermenting yeast in water to catalyse the acyloin condensation of benzaldehyde and acetaldehyde to form the l-ephedrine precursor, l-phenylacetylcarbinol l-PAC. The second step involves the reaction of l-PAC with methylamine to form the corresponding N-methyl imine; the final step employs a metal catalyst to facilitate the reduction of the imine with hydrogen.

This study is focused on the first step of the synthesis, which suffers from the drawback that two by-products, benzyl alcohol and l-phenylpropan-l,2-diol are always formed. The study aims to improve the efficiency of the l-PAC formation by performing the reaction with dried yeast in an organic solvent.

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Cultivate Your Own Wild Yeast Starter

Advanced search. Export Tools. VU Library. View download statistics for this item.All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed. Wiki User It looks like something using: First part : The fermentation of benzaldehyd by yeast Candida or Saccharomyces species growing on dextrose and with 'help' from the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase.

Benzaldehyd is then transferred into precursor L-phenylacetylcarbinol L-PAC, officially named: 1S - 1 -hydroxyphenyl-propan one Second part : L-PAC is then chemically converted to pseudoephedrine via reductive amination.

how to make pseudoephedrine from yeast

This involves the conversion of the carbonyl group to an amine via an intermediate imine. The carbonyl group is at the '- 2 -' position on the propan part of LPAC. More on 'Synthesis of Pseudoephedrine' and 'Reductive Amination' can be found in Related links, just below this answer. Related Questions Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed What is the difference between pseudoephedrine hcl and pseudoephedrine sulfate?

The difference between pseudoephedrine hcl and pseudoephedrine sulfate is the salt used to balance the charge of the pseudoephedrine molecule. Pseudoephedrine HCL uses chlorine while pseudoephedrine sulfate uses sulfur. Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed Is pseudoephedrine hcl the same as pseudoephedrine sulfate?

Is pseudoephedrine hcl the same as pseudoephedrine sulfate? Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed Does pseudoephedrine cause drowsiness? No, quite the opposite. Pseudoephedrine is a stimulant. Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed What is the difference between pseudoephedrine hci and pseudoephedrine hcl?

how to make pseudoephedrine from yeast

Asked in Science, Illegal Drugs What are methamphetamines made of? Methamphetamine is a molecule very similar to Pseudoephedrine. In pure form, it would be made up of a single type of molecule.

Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed Can you take gabapentin and ibuprofen pseudoephedrine together? It is not recommended you take pseudoephedrine in conjunction with Neurontin Gabapentin.

Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed Can you take oxycodone and pseudoephedrine? I am going to the doctor to get a painful shot in the foot, can I take oxycodone if I already took pseudoephedrine? Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed Does pseudoephedrine affect the morning after pill?

There are no known drug interactions between pseudoephedrine Sudafed and the levonorgestrel morning after pill.

Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed Is it okay for pseudoephedrine to be taken prior to surgery? Probably not a good idea since Pseudoephedrine raises your blood pressure. Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed Will pseudoephedrine show positive in a drug test? Unfortunately, pseudoephedrine can show up as methamphetamine because they are very similar structurally.

Asked in Health What pill has L on it? Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed Are fexofenadine and pseudoephedrine the same? No fexofenadine is a H1-receptor antagonist histamine antagonist and pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. Asked in Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine Sudafed What is pseudoephedrine?It's not made from the ephedra plant.

Pseudoephedrine doesn't have any ephedra in it. It is made synthetically, now; extracting the ephedrine from ephedra then converting it to pseudoephedrine is too costly to be worth the effort.

Ephedrine is the active ingredient in Ephedra synonym: ma huang, among others ; it is also produced synthetically, again because it's a heap cheaper to make it from off-the-shelf chemicals than to extract it and purify it to the required standards.

Because of the people using pseudoephedrine to make crystal meth, pseudoephedrine has gotten rather hard to buy; before long, the crystal meth clowns will be figuring a way to make the crystal meth from ephedrine, and that's going to get hard to buy, too. Phenylephrine is starting to displace both of them, not because it is a superior drug it isn't but because the crystal meth makers will have a much harder time using it as a reagent in their little illegal labs Although pseudoephedrine occurs naturally as an alkaloid in certain plant species for example, as a constituent of extracts from the ephedra species, also known as Ma Huang, in which it occurs together with other isomers of ephedrinethe majority of pseudoephedrine produced for commercial use is derived from yeast fermentation of dextrose in the presence of benzaldehyde.

In this process, specialized strains of yeast typically a variety of Candida utilis or Saccharomyces cerevisiae are added to large vats containing water, dextrose and the enzyme pyruvate decarboxylase such as found in beets and other plants, inter alia. After the yeast has begun fermenting the dextrose, the benzaldehyde is added to the vats, and in this environment the yeast convert the precursor ingredients to l-phenylacetylcarbinol L-PAC. L-PAC is then chemically converted to pseudoephedrine via reductive amination.

Oliver, The bulk of pseudoephedrine is produced by commercial pharmaceutical manufacturers in India and China, where economic and industrial conditions favor the mass production of pseudoephedrine for export. Suo, After boiling the plant in a super-saturated glycerol solution for minutes at sea-level, it floats to the top as a swirling, yellowish fluid. It can then be removed, skimming the surface with a piece of college-ruled notebook paper and placed in direct sunlight for no less than 22 hours, until crystallized There, you have it.

Po Boy Lv 4. Update: And yes it does come from the ephedra plant. Answer Save. Bastet's kitten Lv 6. Pseudoephedrine is commonly known as Sudafed. Jack 6 years ago Report.